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    TV Selection Tool

    Select Main Use*:

    Television Attributes:
    Screen Size
    Display Type
    Picture Quality
    Sound Quality
    Connectivity
    Options and Accessories

    Considerations

    Laptop Selection Tool

    Select Main Use*:


    Laptop Attributes:
    Build    Display
    Portability  Security
    Battery Life   Styling
    Keyboard Type
    Connectivity
    Noise Levels
    Start Up Times
    Considerations

    Tablet Selection Tool

    Select Main Use*:

    Tablet Attributes:
    Build
    Display
    Portability
    Battery Life
    Performance
    Connectivity
    Sensor Ability
    Considerations

    Desktop Selection Tool

    Select Main Use*:

    Desktop Attributes:
    Build Display
    Performance
    Connectivity
    Security    Styling
    Startup Times
    Accessories
    Considerations

    UPS Selection Tool

    Select Main Use*:

    Home IT Devices:
    PCs & Desktops  Laptops
    Networking Devices  
    Video/Audio Equipment
    Home Appliances:
    Aircon/Heaters/Fridges
    Home Theater Systems
    Electric Lighting   Motor
    Considerations

    Cordless Selection Tool
    Cordless Phones:

    Cordless Features:
    Automatic Answering Machine
    Digital speaker Phone
    Intercom
    Base Calling
    Battery Backup
    3 way Conferencing




       Considerations Section.


    1. Television Resolution and Clarity :
    Pixels, Pixels and more Pixels. One of the key and the most important term for everything related to Picture quality is Pixels. But why should you care? Clarity, Contrast and Color all revolves around how each pixel is being displayed on the television display. The information that is being transmitted to the television need to be realized and presented to you without any noise, whatsoever. The resolution, that is the proximity of pixels from each other attempts to partly address this. However the senses needs more illuminated , more darker, grayer and colourful pixels where applicable. All the manufacturers address or attempt to address this aspect with different technology implementation and terminology.

    2. Television Contrast:
    Brightness and darkness display capability or Dynamic range of what the Television can display is one of the contrast aspects. Let's discuss about the human eye that has the best possible dynamic range, just accurately able to identify the differential between different black, grey and white regions. The technology has evolved from HDR or High Dynamic Range to Dolby Vision that is very high Dynamic Range. it's important that the content that is being transmitted to the television is also HDR. Seeing is believing, make sure to check on the upscaling feature of the content to HDR that is being marketed by the manufacturers. Upscaling probably only attempts to display normal quality videos to HDR. There is usually a picture processor and an algorithm involved increasing the cost of the hardware itself.

    3. Television Color:
    Let's get to the bit level understanding of the digital display. You would come across terminologies like 8 bit and 10 bit color. All color combinations that can possibly be displayed with each pixel R (Red), G (Green) and B(Blue) is limited to the number of bits each pixel is made of. Yes, there are three different pixels the display is made of that is RGB.
    With 8 bit color : R = 8 Bits(256 combinations), G = 8 bits & B = 8 bits, possible colour combinations is 256 x 256 x 256 = 16777216 colour combinations. With 10 bit colour, colour combinations would be 1024 x1024 x 1024 = 1073741824 colour combinations. It's certain that a 10bit colour display would be able to reproduce better colours than a 8 bit one. Apart from this, different manufacturers use different techniques to enhance and make the colour look as real and lively as possible.

    4. Television Motion Blur :
    You may check the motion rate that is the refresh rate specification of the television.
    50Hz – for smooth picture and general viewing.
    100Hz – for faster action.
    200Hz – for high speed gaming.
    The processing capability on the television has increased the motion rate of the television to beyond 1000 now a days. Look at this specification based on actual usage of the television.

    5. Television Sound Quality :
    This is defined by number of speakers, speakers output Power rating, additional woofers and subwoofers supplied with the television. In general, a 4.2Ch sound system would have 4 speakers with 2 woofers/subwoofers. The higher the power rating, the more the sound decibel levels the speaker can produce. Choose depending on the size of the room for placement of the television.

    6. Television Connectivity :
    Check what external devices you would prefer to connect with the Television like Set-top box, DVD Player, pen drive simultaneously. Important ports to look at are HDMI with or without ARC and CEC, USB, MHL, Ethernet( LAN ), Digital Audio and headphone connector. CEC would let one TV remote, control all other devices with the same remote. With MHL, you can directly connect the TV with the MHL Capable mobile and watch HD multimedia content.
    Choose the wifi option only if you intend to browse on the TV. However, most high end televisions would have Wifi inbuilt and wifi-direct that let's you connect other devices with the television directly. Mirroring is another option to look at, to display the mobile content on television wirelessly.

    7.Options and Accessories :
    Few of the additional options and accessories that are available on high end Televisions are
    - Camera and Mic for Video conferencing.
    - Recording option.
    - Multiview on the same screen.
    - Multiroom Link that lets you create a complete and unified audio system running throughout different rooms in your home.
    1. Performance of the Laptop Processor : The Brain.
    The Performance of the laptop depends on the processing power of the CPU. Besides others, the Processor Core Frequency, number of cores, number of threads, the cache size, the Input/Output frequency and the RAM size defines the Processing Power. The nanometer size has been shrinking and the processor generations usually gets upgraded with the need to accommodate more functionality in a single IC with the same or a smaller package size. The fully loaded running applications contributes to a good amount of heat and noise generation and an optimal design takes care of dissipating the heat and maintaining the decibel noise levels to satisfactory levels. In analogy, Processor is the Brain, always ready to achieve it's limits with optimal design.

    2. Laptop Battery : The Heart.
    Faster Processor and Input/Output Ports are good and all this is achievable because of the Power Supply running in your laptop. There are multiple voltages that the chips inside the Laptop need and all these voltages are down converted from One DC Voltage coming from your charger or the battery. While the Charger down converts AC to a specific DC Voltage, the battery is the store house of current at a specific voltage. The higher the current rating in Ampere-Hour (mAH), the more current the battery can supply for a longer time. For example a 5 Volt 6000mah battery lasts longer than a 5V 4000mah battery with same application environment. This depends on the number of cells the battery has. More cells correspond to more current driving capacity.In analogy, Battery is the Heart pumping blood that is Current to all the chips (organs) of the motherboard in the Laptop.

    3. Laptop Connectivity : The Sense Organs.
    It's all miniaturized and serial now a days. What does this mean? The ports that connect the Laptop to the outer world are decreasing in size and increasing in data transfer speeds. The serial Port standards on your laptop has been constantly increasing the transfer speeds with the next generation of standard transferring data at a much faster speed probably with the same footprint or smaller. Take USB for example, the same sized port can be used to connect a keyboard at 1.5Mbps, Mouse at 12 Mbps, USB2.0 Pen drive at 480Mbps, USB 3.0 Pen drive at 5Gbps and USB3.1 Pen drive at 10Gbps. Even the Wireless standards are set for higher speeds. This is essentially driven by the consumer need of accomplishing tasks faster in relatively lesser time. Standards like HDMI, Display Port, Thunder Bolt, 802.11 Wireless have been constantly evolving with higher next generations transfer speeds compared to the previous ones. It's important to select the connectivity options matching them with the already existing accessories the ports need to connect with. In analogy, the Ports in the Laptop are it's Sense Organs.

    4. Laptop Display : The Face.
    Clarity of picture is the key. A 15 inch display with same clarity as a 10 inch laptop display is better. Clarity depends on the Pixel count and the proximity of the pixels from each other for a given display size. PPI or Pixel per Inch would provide this information. In general a 4K UHD ( 4096 X 2160 pixels ) is better resolution than QUHD (3840×2160 pixels ), 2K( 2048 X 1080 pixels ) and FHD ( 1920x1080 pixels ) displays. Colour combinations and quality can play their role in selection. Higher colour combinations essentially means higher digital RGB combinations a display can support. The matte or glossy polarizer screen attached on the top of the display glass defines the usability when under the sun. In analogy, Display is the Face of the Laptop.

    5. Laptop Security : The Immune System.
    This ranges from Physical Security of the laptop with a Kensington Lock Port to the Trusted Platform Module(TPM) chip on the motherboard, there are a list of options to look at. The Finger Print reader and smart Card reader provides additional security against misuse of unwanted accessibility. The TPM is a special hardware on the Motherboard that stores encryption keys and passwords and keeps the platform trustworthy. The security information present in the hardware provides a better defense against external malicious software attacks. For example, if the configuration of the system is changed unexpectedly at the start-up, the accessibility to the secure applications can be blocked providing a more secure environment until the issue is resolved. In analogy, security options in the laptop are like it's immunity.

    6. Laptop Dynamic Storage : The Memory for the Brain.
    Dynamic Storage like Dual Data Rate Memory (DDR) plays it's part in improving the performance of the laptop. The standards have evolved from DDR,DDR2,DDR3 to DDR4 ( DDR4 being the fastest) that essentially increases the read and write data speeds from/to the memory contributing to the increased performance. However, the maximum transfer speeds associated with the different memories needs to be looked at.

    7. Laptop Static Storage : The Stomach.
    Hard Disk Drive ( HDD ) and Solid State Drive ( SSD ) makes the static storage. HDDs comes in Terabytes now a days that is more than a 1024 Gigabytes and SSDs in Gigabytes usually. The higher the GB capacity, the more the storage option. Points to note are while HDDs comes with more capacity, SSDs are more reliable and faster because of their overall structure of not having any mechnical components like HDDs.

    8. Laptop Portability : The Weight.
    Light weight and small size while not compromising on the Performance is what can decide. While the industry is moving towards thinner electronics with all components getting thin and footprints smaller, this is more of a personal preference.Choose that most suits your need and can ease your stress from a long workday.

    We shall use another forum to discuss the blazers and jackets for your Laptop that is a good looking Laptop bag. Happy Shopping!
    The specifications criteria for Tablet is similar to the Laptop as applicable with few variations. We'll discuss them as below.

    1. Tablet Processor :
    The critical factor for Performance is the Processor Core Frequency, number of cores and threads. Check on the RAM storage capacity. Tablets with RAM upto 4GB are available. Upgradability could not be an option as the RAMs are usually soldered on the Tablet Mother Board unlike laptop which has slots to plug in the RAMs. The cache is limited in size and L3 Cache may not be there unlike Laptops. Speaking only about the Tablets , A multiple core Processor with higher frequency with higher cache and RAM size would always have more fire power relatively.

    2. Tablet Battery :
    Tablets come with Lithium Ion or Lithium Polymer batteries. Li-Polymer is thinner and flexible and Li-Ion is rigid and thicker. Thin Tablets usually contain a Li-Polymer battery. Li-Polymey battery is actually a Li-Ion Polymer battery with no major additional energy driving capacity. There is no additional advantage other than being thinner and lighter when compared to a Li-Ion battery but would increase the overall cost of your tablet.

    3. Tablet Connectivity :
    All the ports we discussed in considerations for buying Laptops are applicable for tablets aswell with the difference in Port sizes. The ports are usually mini or micro ports with size much lesser size than the normal ones. Serial Ports like Micro and Mini USB, Mini Display Port or Micro HDMI each with specific generations and transfer speeds are supported. Additional support for standards like Mobile High Definition Link (MHL) and USB Type C needs to be checked. With MHL you may directly connect your tablet with HD Television when playing multimedia. USB Type C is very versatile and allows direct charging of the tablet by televisions or monitors. USB Type C has a reduced connector size and can connect to any host( PC USB Type A connector) supporting any USB standard. Prior to USB C standard, the devices usually had a USB Type B or AB connector. USB C is one connector that would probably replace all existing USB connectors on your devices while keeping the underlying technology like USB2/USB3/USB3.1 intact.
    Wireless, Bluetooth and option for SIM slot needs to be looked at based on the requirement.

    4. Tablet Display :
    The principles in selecting the display remains same as mentioned in the laptop section. Clarity of picture is the key. A 10 inch display with same clarity as a 7 inch Tablet display is better. Clarity depends on the Pixel count and the proximity of the pixels from each other for a given display size. Pixel Density that is PPI or Pixel per Inch would provide this information. In general a 2048 X 1536 pixels is better resolution than 1920x1080 pixels and 1280 X 800 displays. Color combinations and quality can play their role in selection. Higher color combinations essentially means higher digital RGB combinations a display can support. The Tablet displays are usually Capacitive that provides multi-touch capability and can also be used outdoors.

    5. Tablet Sensor Ability : The different sensors available in the Tablets are Gyroscope, Accelerometer, Ambient Light Sensor, Proximity Sensor, Barometer, Temperature Sensor and Finger Print Sensor. Each sensor serves a specific purpose, let's discuss each one in short.
    Gyroscope and Accelerometer : Have you noticed how the tablet responds while gaming or while rotating the screen or taking certain actions when shaken.The responsible sensors for this purpose are Accelerometer and Gyroscope. Accelerometer provides sensing Linear acceleration based on vibration from a constant position and Gyroscope senses orientation based on rotation. While Accelerometer is commonly found in tablets, Gyroscope is a must for Gaming tablets.
    Ambient Light Sensor : Controls the brightness based on different light scenerios, the auto mode for brightness in the tablet
    Proximity Sensor : Takes certain actions based on the proximity of the tablet from nearby objects.
    Barometer: This sensor helps you when there is a sudden change in the atmospheric pressure in certain scenerios, say when you are trekking to higher altitudes. Tablet with GPS would just do that, but would keep your battery draining.
    Finger Print Sensor : Enhances the security of the tablet from unwanted accessibility.

    6. Tablet Camera :
    The Primary camera is mainly used for Photos and video recording. Sensor type, Sensor size, Image Resolution, Video Resolution, Frames per second specification of the camera needs to be looked into. Larger sensors with less pixel density and low resolution provide better image quality. Image Resolution specifications provide information on the number of pixels available for clicking photos and Video resolution provides the pixels available for videos. Information about the number of Frames per second for taking videos is important. Features like Digital Zoom, Scene Mode and Auto-Focus can be looked at.
    The secondary camera is for Video conferencing and gesture recognition provided with the same specifications as the Primary camera.

    Other specifications like Internal Storage, maximum external storage supported, size and weight of the tablet would play their role in arriving at an appropriate decision.
    1. Performance of the Desktop Processor :
    The Performance of the Desktop depends on the processing power of the CPU. Besides others, the Processor Core Frequency, number of cores, number of threads, the cache size, the Input/Output frequency and the RAM size defines the Processing Power. The nanometer size has been shrinking and the processor generations usually gets upgraded with the need to accommodate more functionality in a single IC with the same or a smaller package size. The fully loaded running applications contributes to a good amount of heat and noise generation and an optimal design takes care of dissipating the heat and maintaining the decibel noise levels to satisfactory levels.

    2. Desktop Connectivity :
    It's all miniaturized and serial now a days. What does this mean? The ports that connect the Desktop to the outer world are decreasing in size and increasing in data transfer speeds. The serial Port standards on your Desktop has been constantly increasing the transfer speeds with the next generation of standard transferring data at a much faster speed probably with the same footprint or smaller. Take USB for example, the same sized port can be used to connect a keyboard at 1.5Mbps, Mouse at 12 Mbps, USB2.0 Pen drive at 480Mbps, USB 3.0 Pen drive at 5Gbps and USB3.1 Pen drive at 10Gbps. Even the Wireless standards are set for higher speeds. This is essentially driven by the consumer need of accomplishing tasks faster in relatively lesser time. Standards like HDMI, Display Port, Thunder Bolt, 802.11 Wireless have been constantly evolving with higher next generations transfer speeds compared to the previous ones. It's important to select the connectivity options matching them with the already existing accessories the ports need to connect with.

    3. Display only in All In One Desktop (AIO) :
    Clarity of picture is the key. A 18.5 inch display with same clarity as a 23.5 inch Desktop display is better. Clarity depends on the Pixel count and the proximity of the pixels from each other for a given display size. PPI or Pixel per Inch would provide this information. In general a 4K UHD ( 4096 X 2160 pixels ) is better resolution than QUHD (3840×2160 pixels ), 2K( 2048 X 1080 pixels ) and FHD ( 1920x1080 pixels ) displays. Color combinations and quality can play their role in selection. Higher color combinations essentially means higher digital RGB combinations a display can support.

    4. Desktop Dynamic Storage :
    Dynamic Storage like Dual Data Rate Memory (DDR) plays it's part in improving the performance of the Desktop. The standards have evolved from DDR,DDR2,DDR3 to DDR4 ( DDR4 being the fastest) that essentially increases the read and write data speeds from/to the memory contributing to the increased performance.However, the maximum transfer speeds associated with the different memories needs to be looked at.

    5. Desktop Static Storage :
    Hard Disk Drive ( HDD ) and Solid State Drive ( SSD ) makes the static storage. HDDs comes in Terabytes now a days that is more than a 1024 Gigabytes and SSDs in Gigabytes usually. The higher the GB capacity, the more the storage option. Points to note are while HDDs comes with more capacity, SSDs are more reliable and faster because of their overall structure of not having any mechnical components like HDDs.

    6. Desktop Form Factor :
    Desktops come in different form factors ranging from All in One Desktop that is all electronics included in the Display structure, Tower, Small Form factor Tower, Ultra Small Form Factor Tower, Mini and Micro Tower, Rack Desktops and Pocket PCs. Choose the one that suits your requirement the most.
    1. Appliances on UPS.
    The first thing to decide before selecting a UPS are the appliances and devices that would be on UPS under Power off conditions. The summation of the number of devices and the maximum Power consumption of each device would give the minimum amount of Power Output that the UPS needs to supply under Power off conditions, along with the number of Sockets that can suffice the Power requirement for multiple connected devices. It's important to understand the concept of True Power in Watts and Apparent Power in Volt Amperes(VA) and the ratio of the two called Power Factor. We'll not get into how and why True Power is always less than the Apparent Power and the difference between impedence and resistance. But the industry de facto is True Power delivered to the appliance is 60% of the Apparent Power that the UPS can deliver. This along with the amount of time that the UPS needs to supply power can provide a value of the Overall Wattage requirements from the Battery inside the UPS or connected externally to the UPS.
    This coupled with the type of wave the UPS is spec'd - True Sine Wave, Approximation to a sine Wave or Simulated Sine wave. Sensitive appliances and equipments should consider only a Pure Sine wave UPS. Many devices don't bother with the quality of AC provided by the UPS, a good appliance design would cope up with any type of AC power supplied. However there are devices that wouldn't cope up with the bad input Power and you need a True Sine Wave UPS.

    2. Indicators.
    Various LED indicators provide indications about the status of the UPS and if any action is required by the user.
    - Online Indicator : The UPS is in the bypass mode and the devices are connected to the mains.
    - On Battery : The UPS is providing power to the connected devices. usually this is accompanied by a beep sound every few seconds.
    - Overload : the battery in the UPS is not able to provide sufficient power that the load demands.
    Other indicators like UPS Fault and Battery replacement would call for servicing by the manufacturer personnel.

    3. Alarms: Like indicators provide visual indications, Alarms beep on account of certain conditions.
    - On Battery : Power is provided by the UPS when the mains is powered off.
    - Low Battery : Battery is at it's threshold supplying current and needs a recharge for further UPS operation.
    - Overload : The load draws more current than the battery is specified at. Either a higher Power UPS is to be considered or disconnect appliances from output as feasible.
    - Over Heat : The work done by the UPS has increased it's temperature beyond specified limits and needs to cool off.
    - UPS Fault : There is wiring fault like reversed polarity or ground wire missing etc.

    4. ROHS Complaint UPS.
    Restriction of Hazardous Substances compliant UPS parts exclude specific substances like Mercury, Cadmium, Lead, Hexavalent Chromium etc that cause harm to human body. ROHS is a directive that has become a law in most of the European contries following safety standards.

    5.UPS with Internal or External Battery.
    Most UPS for IT devices at home like Router, Desktop, Laptop, Wifi Modem would suffice with a UPS with Internal battery. This battery would usually be of 12 Volts supplying current as the specified VA levels.
    For other electrical appliances like Microwaves, Heaters, ACs, Refrigators UPS with external batteries needs to be considered. These batteries demand a simple connection with the UPS and are also of 12 Volts output with different AH levels and can be connected serially to increase the overall Voltage Ampere Hours to meet specific time requirements.
    1. Aperture of the Lens and the Focal Number.
    One of the important considerations in camera selection is the F-Number range supported by the Lens. This number determines how well the camera is able to accumulate Light for a clear bright Picture and how close from the object the camera is able to resolve focus. The smaller the F-Number, the higher the aperture and higher the light entering into the camera for a brighter capture. A smaller F-Number would do really good for Portraits where the clear focus is on the subject. This would mean a good focus on the subject and a blurry background image. The reverse, that is a smaller aperture would leave less light in and would capture good background image like that needed for Landscapes. Smaller F-Number Lens would usually come with a higher price tag. However, the best choice is to select a wide range of F-Number supported Lens.

    2. Shutter Speed.
    This determines how well the Camera is able to resolve moving objects like a racing car. The higher the settable Shutter Speed, that is lower the shutter closing time, the faster the instant of a capture. This number need to be looked at depending on the actual application of the camera. This along with the Frames per second (FPS) would help in determining how well the camera is able to capture moving objects.

    3. ISO Number.
    The basic functionality of the camera is to convert light from the image to electrical signals with a device like CCD (Charged Coupled Device) for example, convert these light photons into Electrical Signals and process the signals Digitally. ISO number is the ability of the camera to capture light, but making the picture brighter as required. Higher ISO numbers would be useful in darker conditions making it more sensitive to light. The range of ISO sensitivity numbers supported by the camera needs to be looked at for a wider picture portfolio.

    4. Pixel size.
    The clarity of the image depends on how close the pixels are more each other that is the resolution and more pixels would certainly make the event clear and visible as it should be. A higher Pixel setting would also increase the overall size of the picture itself demanding more memory for image and video recording, while also taking more time for transfers.

    5. Communication.
    Ports like Micro HDMI, USB2, USB3 , Wifi and NFC capability for direct transfers and GPS capability can be looked at for specific applications. In general, these ports would let you connect the camera to TV directly via HDMI or share pictures to the laptop via Wifi etc.

    6. Attachable Lenses.
    Mirrorless camera with attachable lenses with different Aperture and F-Number are available with additional cost. In short, this option provides flexibility for picturing in different scenerios with the same Camera body.

    Maximum Optical zoom and Digital Zoom feature of the camera are other features that can be looked at. Digital zoom would just expand the picture after being taken compromising on the resolution of the overall pixels used for capture.



    Here are the things to decide before buying a Projector:

    Space availability for projection. This one single need would determine Screen Size that in turn decides specifications like F-Number, Focal Length of the Lens and Throw Ratio. Once the minimum and maximum Screen Size is fixed, the next thing to decide is the selection of the kind of technology considered suitable for your application viz LCD, DLP and SXRD type projection. We discuss the construction of each at the end of this article and the pros and cons of each type. Let's discuss the key considerations here.

    1. Focal Length, Zoom Factor and Throw Ratio of the Lens.
    These specs define how far and near from screen the Projector can be placed and the possible screen sizes. The Throw Ratio that is the Ratio of the Screen Size to the Throw, the distance of the Screen from the Projector has to be looked at, depending on the availability of size of the room for Projection. For instance, a classroom with space constraints would need a projector with short throw or Ultra short throw sufficing to the required screen size, while a Large Venue Projector would require a Larger throw catering to a much bigger screen size. The Screen Size spec is mentioned by the manufacturer, yet the distance of the Screen from the projector is what is defined by the Throw Ratio.

    2. Brightness and Contrast Ratio
    The light that projects on the screen is sourced by a Lamp, processed to a billion or even a trillion colors before reaching the Projector Lens and then thrown on to the screen by the lens. But what defines the brightness and the variations in the bright and darker regions? The brightness is determined by the number of lumens the lamp is able to supply before it passes through the lens. the higher the lumens, the higher the brightness and higher is the power consumption requirement to generate that level of brightness.
    Contrast Ratio defines maximum whiteness to maximum blackness. The more this ratio, the better it is in realizing whites whiter, grey grayer and black blacker.

    3. Resolution.
    XGA, WXGA, FHD, WUXGA, 4K all relate to the number of pixels available to reproduce the image to be displayed on the screen and the proximity of pixels from each other. The higher the resolution the better the picture realized at a granular level. Number os pixels and resolution of 4K > WUXGA > FHD > WXGA > XGA. Selection should be determined based on the requirement like the one needed for home theater would go with 4K or FHD and the one needed for Classroom would suffice with XGA or WXGA.

    4. Lamp Life and Lamp Wattage.
    This specification determines how long the Projector Light Source can run before demanding a replacement. Multiple values of Lamp Life in hours is specified by the manufacturer for Normal modes, Eco modes and other modes specific to manufacturers. These modes usually have a dimming effect on the light out resulting in the saving of Lamp Power there by resulting in an increase in hours of lamp Life.

    5. Connectivity.
    Projectors come with multiple ports and not limited to HDMI IN for connecting a source through HDMI , HDMI Out for connecting a television HDMI IN for example , Plug and Play with USB2 , LAN port, Monitor Out , VGA , MHL for direct connectivity with Mobiles/Tablets , Audio/Video In, Audio Out and inbuilt speakers ranging from 2 Watts to as much more than 20 Watts. Choose based on what all you intend to connect to the projector. The Wireless option provides an option to display content to the screen wirelessly.

    6. Power Consumption and weight.
    Not a main consideration, yet an important one. Look for a projector that suffices your requirement with minimum wattage consumption and less in weight. You might need to look at weight depending on whether it's a fixed installation Projector say for a conference room or a portable one.

    DLP and LCD Type Projector :

    DLP Type: All technologies use lens for projecting , however the difference is how white light reaches the lens and the processing of light before it reaches the lens. In a DLP type, white light is made to pass through reflective mirrors contained in an IC called DMD or Digital Micro Mirror Device that acts as a light switch. These swiches are away from the light source to produce different shades of grey. In a single chip DLP system a color wheel is added to convert this white monochrome light to Red, Geen and Blue sequentially to fall on the DMD Chip creating a billion colors with the on and off sequence. In a 3 chip DLP system white light passes through a prism dividing it into Red, Green and Blue. one chip is associated with each color and the reflections from the Red, Green and Blue chips are combined and passed through the lens producing more than a trillion colors.

    LCD Type: In a LCD Projector, Light is made to pass through polysilicon LCD to the lens. The LCD consist of crystals sandwiched between two polarizer sheets. The LCD is backlit with red, Green and blue light. Where the DLP is made up of reflective mirrors, LCD is made up of tiny cells. The opacity of the cells is controlled by an electrical signal that controls the properties of the LCD Panel. In a 3 chip LCD system Light passes through Red, Green and Blue Mirrors before being polarized by the LCD.



    The first thing to check before buying a router is the download speed claimed by your service provider. Note that this speed should be available to your home and not to the building premises. Next thing to look at is the end point cable carrying internet to your home that has to be connected to the router for conversion from electrical/Optical signal to Wireless. It can be a Phone Line RJ-11 with ADSL/VDSL standards on top of it or can be RJ-45 Electrical or Optical WAN cable that gets directly terminated to your Modem first. In the latter scenario, the output from the Modem gets connected to the Input of the Wireless Router by a RJ-45 LAN Cable.

    Once the download speed claimed and the cable or standard that carries internet is known, it's time to choose a wireless Router with input sufficing and exceeding the speeds claimed by the Internet service provider. There are two parts attached to it.

    1. Type of Input to the wireless router.

    a. ADSL/VDSL Routers - The phone Line RJ-11 Input.
    These routers would have a Phone Line RJ11 Connector as input and comes with specific speed standards supported like ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+/VDSL and VDSL2. Check in Router spec sheet, the maximum download speed supported. This would be mentioned in terms of ITU-T Standards supported.

    ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ up to 24 Mbps download speed and 3.3Mbps upload speed. Check which of the below standards are mentioned in the specification of the Router.
    ITU G992.1 supports 8 Mbps download speed. (12Mbps with Annex A/B)
    ITU G992.2 supports 1.5 Mbps download speed.
    ITU G992.3 supports 12 Mbps download speed.
    ITU G992.4 supports 1.5 Mbps download speed.
    ITU G992.5 supports 24 Mbps download speed.

    VDSL/VDSL2 up to 100Mbps download speed and 100 Mbps upload speed depend on the standard supported. ITU G993.1 supports 55Mbps download speed.
    ITU G993.2 supports 100Mbps download speed.
    The Router in consideration must support the standard with higher speed than mentioned by the service Provider.

    b. WAN Input Routers - The Internet RJ-45 Cable Input
    If the terminating signal at home is optical, the Modem essentially converts the Optical signal to electrical before being fed to the Router for wireless conversion via a LAN Cable.
    These Routers would have RJ-45 connector as input supporting 10/100 base T standard up to 10Mbps and 100 Mbps download speed respectively or 10/100/1000 base T standard supporting up to 1000 Mbps that is Gigabit Ethernet.

    c. Routers supporting both ADSL RJ-11 Phone line and RJ-45 WAN Input.
    These routers give the flexibility for both ADSL and WAN internet connectivity.



    2. Wireless Connection with the Router.

    a. wireless standard supported.
    Now we know that the Router's input is exceeding the speed claimed by the Service Provider. So let’s look at what does it take for the same speed to reach your Laptop/Mobile/Tablet/PC that connects wirelessly. Of course, there is certainly an option to connect Ethernet RJ-45 LAN cable output from the Router to your PC and get the desired speeds. However, the Router should be able to give a similar performance wirelessly.
    Check what wireless bands and standards are supported by the Router. The bands could be 2.4GHz and 5GHz frequency with standards like 802.11a/b/g/n and 802.11 ac respectively.
    Then, there is an option of simultaneous dual band use of bands 2.4 GHz and 5GHz for say band 1 for general browsing and band 2 for Gaming/Video download over multiple connected devices.
    Do check that your laptop supports 802.11ac before arriving at a conclusion.

    802.11 b/g supports a link speed up to 11Mbps and 54Mbps respectively at 2.4GHz and approximate coverage of distance up to 120 ft indoor.
    802.11 n up to 600 Mbps at 2.4 GHz up to 230 ft.
    802.11 a supports 54Mbps at 5GHz up to 110 ft.
    802.11 ac supports a link speed from 150 Mbps to more than 2 Gbps with multiple configurations ranging from AC600 to AC5300.
    802.11 ad up to and above 6Gbps theoretically.

    The Link speed for Single/dual or Tri bands are usually mentioned in the datasheet in a combined manner, but in practical terms you would never exceed the speed that the input of the Router supports. That means a Router supporting Gigabit or 1000base T input would never be able to exceed a combined speed of 1000Mbps wirelessly. The best of routers would curtail it to 600Mbps -700Mbps.

    b. Number of Antennas.
    The next thing to look at is the number of Internal and external Antennas the Router has for supporting Small/Medium/large house application need.
    The higher the antenna number, the higher the probability of better signal reception in multiple direction.

    Other things to consider are the LEDs available for diagnostics, the available Ports for Ethernet LAN and USB2.0 /USB3.0 Ports for connectivity.